"The two leaders agreed to stay in close contact about the situation", the White House said, providing no further details.
In his remarks in Ankara, Erdoğan criticized both the USA and Russian Federation for their sstance in Syria.
Meanwhile, Turkish Foreign Ministry Spokesman Hami Aksoy said that there are strong suspicions that the chemical attack in the Syrian town of Douma, in the Damascus suburb of eastern Ghouta was carried out by the Assad regime.
The phone conversation occurred after Trump warned Russian Federation, which supports Syria's Bashar al-Assad government, saying USA missiles "will be coming" in response to the alleged chemical attack that reportedly killed dozens of people in Douma.
In its readout of the Erdogan-Putin talks, the Kremlin said that "concern was expressed about the current escalation in and around Syria based on the overblown speculation concerning the purported use of chemical weapons in Douma".
Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu said earlier in the day that "the Assad regime must leave Syria", alleging the regime has killed almost 1 million people with airstrikes and bombs.
But Turkey and Russian Federation in recent months have put their differences aside and have been working closely to find a political solution to the conflict.
Turkey is allegedly a North Atlantic Treaty Organisation ally, allowing US planes to fly against ISIS from Incirlik. The United Nations Security Council adopted a resolution on February, 24, calling for a month-long ceasefire in Syria.
Erdogan's warning about potential conformation in Syria echoed similar concerns by Turkish Prime Minister Binali Yildirim who on Wednesday called on Russian Federation and the U.S. to stop "street fighting" on Syria.
On January 20, Turkey, together with the Free Syrian Army opposition forces, launched Operation Olive Branch in Afrin.
Erdogan said that the number of "neutralised" PKK terrorists in northern Iraq was 337.